Wade granted women control over their reproductive lives in ways which had previously been denied to them by various criminal and civil laws. Casey, that "[t]he ability of women to participate equally in the economic and social life of the Nation has been facilitated by their ability to control their reproductive lives. Shortly after Roe was decided, state legislatures began passing laws aimed at chipping away at the right to abortion.
It was that year that abortion became a constitutional right and was legalized on a federal level across the USA with the historical Supreme Court Decision Roe v. Since then, however, the conservative right and religious leaders across the states have been trying with every means they have to overthrow the decision.
With every chance the republican controlled legislatures have, they change their state laws in order to make it more and more difficult for a woman to have an abortion or even take contraceptives. Especially this year, abortion and contraception in general became one of the most discussed issues on the agendas of the republican primaries due to the Birth Control Mandate that the Obama Administration tries to push forward.
The first part will focus on the pro-life and pro-choice arguments in order to give a brief introduction to the readers; in addition, the second and main part of this paper focuses on the debate in the USA by firstly presenting the main and most influential Supreme Court decisions and bills and, secondly by presenting the republican opposition and the developments so far.
Pro Choice Argumentsi Before moving forward with the discussion it is essential to introduce arguments of both proponents and opponents of abortion.
Pro-Life Arguments The basic argument of pro-life proponents is that abortion is murder.
They base this argument on the fact that they consider the fetus as human; therefore, killing potential people not only is it wrong but also illegal. In addition, there is the argument on fetal rights; that is, since the fetus is a potential human then human rights apply.
But one of the most debatable arguments concerns the time human life begins. Pro-life supporters argue that human life begins from the beginning of conception since the fetus fulfils 4 criteria: Furthermore others argue that abortion violates feminist principlesiii: In addition, pro-choice supporters argue that abortion is vital for gender equality.
With free access to abortion women will be able to achieve social, economic and political equality. According to Brian Frederkingvi, pro-choice advocates see abortion as a civil liberties issue. If that is the case then, the government cannot infringe upon that right. If women do not have the right to decide on abortion then their civil liberties are being violated and consequently they are not equal to men.
Pro-life advocates support that life begins at the moment of conception whereas pro-choice advocates argue that life begins at the moment of birth. Michael Perryvii, who has argued the moral aspects of human rights, supports that all human beings have inherent dignity and argues that unborn humans have inherent dignity too, therefore abortion is morally wrongviii.
Quoting from Roe v. The detriment that the State would impose upon the pregnant woman by denying this choice altogether is apparent. Wade, the Doe v. They have also tried to overturn Roe v.
Wade by promoting several bills and court decisions as state laws; this means that despite the legality of abortion on a federal level there is a large number of restrictions in every state separately.
For example, there are state laws that make counseling essential before the operation. There is nothing wrong with that of course.
However, during these counseling hours, which are usually 24 hours before the operation, doctors must mention some facts, that are not entirely scientifically proven, for example such as that abortion is connected to breast cancer or mental illness.
Public Funding 17 States: Use their own funds for Medicaid 32 States and DC: Counseling before Abortion Waiting Periods 26 States: Guttmacher Institutexii Birth Control Mandate The latest controversy over abortion was sparked after the proposed birth control mandate by the Obama administration.
With the new contraceptive rule under the health law, insured women will qualify for contraceptives without a co-payment as part of a range of preventive medical servicesxiii. The conservative right and religious leaders see this mandate as an attack to religious freedom. They base their arguments on the fact that abortion, as a contraceptive method, comes in contrast to their beliefs thus it is unconstitutional and should not pass.
During a House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform hearing on February that discussed the mandate with religious leaders the republican representative and Tea Party memberJoe Walsh, told that Barack Obama's plan to eliminate co-pays for birth control was an attack on religious freedom arguing that the mandate was not about women but about religious libertiesxiv.
In addition, John Boehner, the speaker of the House of Representatives opposed the mandate by saying that the religious beliefs of the American people are being violated. In her speech, on Marchshe supported that: According to pro-choice advocates in the USA, Religious ideology should not mandate laws for all citizens, especially since religious freedom is constitutionally established by the First Amendmentxvi.
Most states allow the purchase of additional abortion coverage at an additional cost.Jan 17, · By , 11 additional states had made similar changes to their abortion laws and four other states – New York, Washington, Hawaii and Alaska – had completely decriminalized abortion during the early stages of pregnancy.
whether the fetus is a person or not. If the fetus is a person, then it has the rights that belong to persons, including the right to life. The concept of personhood, in other words, is the bridge.
The controversial issue of abortion that had pitted Americans against one another since the s continued into the s, taking a hostile turn.
Some antiabortion groups advocated violent terrorist tactics, not only picketing abortion clinics across the country .
Physicians for Reproductive Choice and the Guttmacher Institute, "An Overview of Abortion in the United States," lausannecongress2018.com, Jan.
Planned Parenthood, "Abortion after the First Trimester in the United States," lausannecongress2018.com (accessed Mar. 22, ).
A Thoughtful and Compassionate Guide to Today's Most Controversial Issue Author: Peter Kreeft Cuts through the mass confusion surrounding abortion and lays out solid common ground The abortion debate in the United States is confused.
one of the most pro-life states, and reveals how abortion-related laws become incentives or penalties. 0 Down votes, mark as not useful. Abortion Overview. Uploaded by Elyas.