Types of Essay There are two forms of essay: Literary essays are of four types: Expository Essay — In an expository essay, the writer gives an explanation of an idea, themeor issue to the audience by giving his personal opinions. This essay is presented through examples, definitions, comparisons, and contrast.
Etymology[ edit ] In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius literally "kidnapper" to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martialwho complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses". Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft.
Legal aspects[ edit ] Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud.
While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright.
Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship.
Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience for example, a reader, listener, or teacher. Plagiarism is also considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is specifically supposed to be original content for example, the plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher.
In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong.
In academia and journalism[ edit ] Within academiaplagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes[ citation needed ].
Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong[ citation needed ]. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation.
While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internetwhere articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier.
No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists  ; however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism.
According to Bela Gipp  academic plagiarism encompasses: Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism. Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone: Uses words, ideas, or work products Attributable to another identifiable person or source Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary  Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities: Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form.
Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation.
Submitting someone's work as their own.
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Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations. Re-writing someone's work without properly citing sources.
Using quotations, but not citing the source. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited.Definition of quotation written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels.
The same assessment, almost word for word, comes from Muhammad Dahlan, a former Palestinian security chief exiled to the United Arab Emirates. — The Economist, "The leader of Hamas in Gaza is the most influential man in Palestine," 26 May The young actor’s sister shared a video of Karras re.
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Less figuratively speaking, he came up into the printing-office to expose from the book the nefarious plagiarism of an editor in a neighboring city, who had adapted with the change of names and a word or two here and there, whole passages from the essay on Barere, to the denunciation of a brother editor.
An extended definition, however, goes beyond what can be found in a dictionary, offering an expanded analysis and illustration of a concept that may be abstract, controversial, unfamiliar, or .
Definition Essay I. A definition essay defines a word, term, or concept in depth by providing a personal commentary on what the specific subject means.