Volume 32, Issue 4JulyPages Globalization, religious fundamentalism and the need for meaning Author links open overlay panel Michael B. Salzman Show more https: This paper seeks to enhance a theoretical understanding of the relationship between globalization and religious fundamentalism. Previous papers [Salzman, M.
Introduction to Globalization Teachers may want to have the students read this introduction before they read the essays on "Globalization" to provide a basic understanding of the concepts included therein.
Although globalization is often thought of in economic terms i. Many in local communities associate globalization with modernization i. At the global level, globalization is thought of in terms of the challenges it poses to the role of governments in international affairs and the global economy.
There are heated debates about globalization and its positive and negative effects. While globalization is thought of by many as having the potential to make societies richer through trade and to bring knowledge and information to people around the world, there are Fundamentalism globalization essay others who perceive globalization as contributing to the exploitation of the poor by the rich, and as a threat to traditional cultures as the process of modernization changes societies.
There are some who link the negative aspects of globalization to terrorism. To put a complicated discussion in simple terms, they argue that exploitative or declining conditions contribute to the lure of informal "extremist" networks that commit criminal or terrorist acts internationally.
And thanks to today's technology and integrated societies, these networks Fundamentalism globalization essay throughout the world.
It is in this sense that terrorism, too, is "globalized.
Before moving to these essays, consider the discussion below about some of the economic, political, social and cultural manifestations of globalization.
Economic manifestations of globalization Increasingly over the past two centuries, economic activity has become more globally oriented and integrated. Some economists argue that it is no longer meaningful to think in terms of national economies; international trade has become central to most local and domestic economies around the world.
Among the major industrial economies, sometimes referred to as the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development OECD countries, 65 percent of the total economic production, or GDP, is associated with international trade.
Economists project that, in the U. The recent focus on the international integration of economies is based on the desirability of a free global market with as few trade barriers as possible, allowing for true competition across borders.
International economic institutions, such as the World Trade Organization WTO and the International Monetary Fund IMFfacilitate this increasingly barrier-free flow of goods, services, and money capital internationally.
Many economists assess economic globalization as having a positive impact, linking increased economic transactions across national borders to increased world GDP, and opportunities for economic development.
Still, the process is not without its critics, who consider that many of the economies of the industrial North i.
Critics assert that these conditions are to a significant extent the consequence of global restructuring which has benefited Northern economies while disadvantaging Southern economies.
Others voice concern that globalization adversely affects workers and the environment in many countries around the world. Discontent with the perceived disastrous economic and social manifestations of globalization has led to large and growing demonstrations at recent intergovernmental meetings, including meetings of the World Trade Organization WTOthe International Monetary Fund IMFthe World Bank, and the Group of Eight G8 leading industrial countries.
Political manifestations of globalization Globalization has impacts in the political arena, but there is not a consensus among social scientists about the nature and degree of its impact on national and international politics. Some political scientists argue that globalization is weakening nation-states and that global institutions gradually will take over the functions and power of nation-states.
Other social scientists believe that while increased global inter-connectivity will result in dramatic changes in world politics, particularly in international relations i. Political theorists and historians often link the rise of the modern nation-state in Europe and North America in the nineteenth century and in Asia and Africa in the twentieth century with industrialization and the development of modern capitalist and socialist economies.
These scholars also assert that the administrative structures and institutions of the modern nation-state were in part responsible for the conditions that led to industrial expansion.
Moreover, industrial development brought with it social dislocations that necessitated state intervention in the form of public education and social "safety nets" for health care, housing, and other social services. Consequently, the development of the contemporary nation-state, nationalism, inter-state alliances, colonization, and the great wars of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were in part political manifestations of changes in the structure of economic production.
It follows from this argument that in the era of globalization, with its significant changes in global economic relations, the nineteenth and twentieth century model of the nation-state may become obsolete.
The economic orientation of the modern nation-state has been centered on national economic interests, which may often conflict with the global trend towards the free and rapid movement of goods, services, finance, and labor.
These processes give rise to the question of whether the modern nation-state can survive in its present form in the new global age. Is it adaptable, or will it gradually be replaced by emerging multinational or regional political entities?
Changes in political structure and practices resulting from economic globalization are only a partial explanation of changes in world politics in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
International relations and world politics in the second half of the twentieth century were strongly informed by another global factor - the Cold War i.
The early and most intense years of the Cold War in the s and s coincided with the de-colonization of Asia and Africa and the creation of more than 70 new nation-states.
Many of the new nation-states of Africa and Asia had based their struggle for independence on the principles of freedom, justice and liberty - principles espoused by both the Eastern and Western blocks. The economic, political, and ideological competition between East and West had fertile ground in these newly independent nation-states.
Although the "cold war" never developed into a "hot war" of actual military conflict in Europe or North America, civil wars within and wars between new nation-states in Africa and Asia were fueled and supported by Cold War tensions.
To some experts, the demise of the Soviet Union and the Eastern bloc a decade ago promised a new era of world peace and increased openness. The processes of globalization accelerated as goods, ideas and people flowed more freely across borders in the post-Cold War political environment.
In place of policies of containment, the international community fostered policies of openness to trade and based on the principles of democracy and rights. The creation of legal institutions like the international criminal tribunals that have sprung up in the past decade, as well as the proliferation of major international conferences aiming to address global problems through international cooperation, have been referred to as proof of political globalization.
Still, since all of these institutions rely on the participation of nation-states and respect the fundamental principle of national sovereignty, the extent to which these institutions exhibit true political globalization continues to be debated.
Social and cultural manifestations of globalization Though there are many social and cultural manifestations of globalization, here are some of the major ones:Globalization Essay Globalization Has Increased Poverty Although the concept of globalization is very recent, it has existed throughout the history.
Globalization began to take greater height from the Industrial Revolution years ago in England which was the most developed countries in the world. Essay Globalization and Its Discontents. Joseph E.
Stiglitz. Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., Globalization and Its Discontents is an incredibly easy read that provides remarkable insight to some of the world largest public institutions.
Fundamentalism & Globalization Essay Sample. Abstract The political power of fundamentalist religion, particularly Islam and Christianity, has grown over the last 30 years (Chaves, ). Abstraction The political power of fundamentalist faith.
peculiarly Islam and Christianity. has grown over the last 30 old ages (Chaves. ). Similarly. globalisation. frequently driven by a free market fundamentalism. has spread the influence of capitalist economy into every corner of the universe.
The spiritual motions are rooted in a opposition to . Beyond Fundamentalism, Americans Society Faces Globalization (Essay Sample) Instructions: Writing a 2 page essay on the assigned topic "beyond fundamentalism" with reference to a given text.
M8D2 Assignment: Globalization & Religious Fundamentalism (Essay Sample) Instructions: Write a formal two to three page essay, complete with citations from at least two outside academic sources from the CSU-Global Library to support your findings.