In basic terms, judicial activism occurs when a judge presiding over a case allows his personal or political views to guide his decision when rendering judgment on a case. The topic of judicial activism has been a source of controversy in the U.
Internet activismHacktivismOnline social movementAnonymous groupDigital rightsand Category: Internet activism The power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones, which put the issues in front of an international audience.
These types of practices of Internet activism were later picked up and used by other activists in subsequent mass mobilizations, such as the M Movement in Spain inOccupy Gezi in Turkey inand more. The Digital Rights movement  consists of activists and organizations, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundationwho work to protect the rights of people in relation to new technologies, particularly concerning the Internet and other information and communications technologies.
Activism in literature[ edit ] Activism in literature not to be confused with literary activism includes the expression of intended or advocated reforms, realized or unachieved, through published, written or verbally promoted or communicated forms.
Economic activism[ edit ] Economic activism involves using economic power for change. Both conservative and liberal groups use economic activism to as a form of pressure to influence companies and organizations to oppose or support particular political, religious, or social values and behaviors.
This is typically done either through preferential patronage to reinforce "good" behavior and support companies one would like to succeed, or through boycott or divestment to penalize "bad" behavior and pressure companies to change or go out of business.
Consumer activism consists of activism carried out on behalf of consumers for consumer protection or by consumers themselves.
For example, activists in the free produce movement of the late s protested against slavery by boycotting goods produced with slave labor. Today, vegetarianismveganismand freeganism are all forms of consumer activism which boycott certain types of products.
Other examples of consumer activism include simple livinga minimalist lifestyle intended to reduce materialism and conspicuous consumptionand tax resistancea form of direct action and civil disobedience in opposition to the government that is imposing the tax, to government policy, or as opposition to taxation in itself.
Shareholder activism involves shareholders using an equity stake in a corporation to put pressure on its management.
You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. February The longest running peace vigil in U.
Activists employ many different methods, or tactics, in pursuit of their goals. The tactics chosen are significant because they can determine how activists are perceived and what they are capable of accomplishing.
For example, nonviolent tactics generally tend to garner more public sympathy than violent ones  and are more than twice as effective in achieving stated goals. Activists may also innovate new tactics of protest.
These may be entirely novel, such as Douglas Schuler's idea of an "activist road trip",   or may occur in response to police oppression or countermovement resistance. Some scholars argue that many of these new tactics are digitally analogous to the traditional offline tools of contention.
Common methods used for activism include:Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well, particularly over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, and .
The term "judicial activism" was coined by Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. in Judicial activism is a ruling issued by a judge that overlooks legal precedents or past . In Indiana, an example of judicial activism occurred in the ruling in Barnes vs.
State of Indiana, in May of , concerning the right of police officers to enter homes, even though it went against hundreds of years of common law, in the opinion of some people. Supposedly, Mrs. Barnes had called asking for police assistance to a domestic.
Some scholars mistakenly argue that judges engage in judicial activism whenever they strike down a law, but judges’ subjective policy preferences could just as . Judicial activism, an approach to the exercise of judicial review, or a description of a particular judicial decision, in which a judge is generally considered more willing to decide constitutional issues and to invalidate legislative or executive actions.
Although debates over the proper role of. Judicial restraint is commonly considered to be the opposite of judicial activism. Judicial restraint embraces the belief that judges should narrowly interpret existing law and constitutional interpretations, adhering to prior interpretations or congressional acts in making decisions.