About the Author We may not always know it, but we think in metaphor. A large proportion of our most commonplace thoughts make use of an extensive, but unconscious, system of metaphorical concepts, that is, concepts from a typically concrete realm of thought that are used to comprehend another, completely different domain.
Creencia The author, an Assistant Commissioner of the Philippine Commission on Audit, is in Charge of the Commission's professional development program. A certified public accountant, she is a member of the committee that conceptualized, designed and developed the NGAS and is also a member of the steering committee that is overseeing the computerization of the System.
She is a holder of a master's degree in public administration from the University of the Philippines.
It is for this reason that the users of the information must understand the financial reports, which the accounting system produces. And to address their needs, the Framework also identifies the following objectives: To the extent practicable, government financial reports should provide users with the information they need; Government financial reports should help users understand the size of the government, the nature and scope of its activities and its financial position; Government financial reports should help users understand and forecast how the Government finances its activities; Government financial reports should help users understand and forecast the effects of the government activities; and Government financial reports should help users determine whether the government did what it said it would do and the costs of its activities.
On the other hand, the NAAM was revised in The government employed at least three major accounting systems. The national government used the government system prescribed by the NAAM. Accounting in the local government was governed by the RMIT.
Some government-owned or controlled corporations adopted the system prescribed by the NAAM while others adopted the systems used by similar entities in the private sector. The accounting systems were also governed by the rules and regulations issued by the then General Auditing Office, the Budget Commission, the Department of Finance and the applicable rules issued by the Central bank of the Philippines where appropriate.
Since the supervision over accounting was changed at least ten times from the Insular Treasurer to the Auditing Office to the Budget Commission then to the various departments, bureaus and instrumentalities.
Please refer to Annex 1. These changes in supervision may have caused the problems in coordination, consistency and orientation that plagued the system. Gopez When Francisco S.
This Decree provided for the restructuring of the COA and lodged supervision over accounting with the Commission. Please refer to Annex 2. It may be of interest to note that Section 2 2Article IX-D of the Philippine constitution affirmed this authority where it provides that: It was prescribed for use on November 14, by the national government sector NGSthe local government sector LGS and the government-owned or controlled corporations GOCCs except for government corporations with unique accounting systems and the use of the Chart may not be feasible.
The SGCA was designed to ensure 1 uniformity in accounting and reporting; 2 facility in consolidating financial reports; and 3 adaptability to computerization Tantuico, Pobre and Magno. The accounting system with the SGCA served the needs of the times.
But the functions and responsibilities of public managers had become increasingly more complex They needed a more management-focused and understandable information to help them in managing the resources which have become scarcer and scarcer while the needs for them have grown by leaps and bounds.
The public managers need information from the accounting system for a more effective financial management.With this new development, the Commission on Audit (COA), under the new Constitution, promulgated the New Government Accounting System in the Philippines (NGAs) for use by all government agencies.
The shift to NGAs was made in response to the following need: 1. We may not always know it, but we think in metaphor. A large proportion of our most commonplace thoughts make use of an extensive, but unconscious, system of metaphorical concepts, that is, concepts from a typically concrete realm of thought that are used to comprehend another, completely different domain.
Tennessee Succeeds. Download the State of Education in Tennessee report from the Tennessee Department of Education. Read More. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
It is the supreme audit institution of the federal government of the United States.. Mission of GAO is to: investigate how the federal government spends . The New Government Accounting System: Issues in Public Audit 1 Introduction Historically, the growth of government auditing and accounting in the Philippines was greatly influenced by the administrative practices in the United States, so much so that during the time that the General Accounting Office in the United States was responsible for.
old and new government accounting distinguished Essay The schedule of events does not need to be detailed. However, it should contain at least a general description of the types of events (e.g., aircraft aerobatic performances, skydivers, car/plane transfer, etc.), the identification of the aircraft, and the performers in the sequence of.