Biology G — General Botany Prerequisites:
Usually days, the range is 3 days to 2 months65 The host must be susceptible to the infection for infection to occur. Factors influencing susceptibility are: Number of organisms to which host is exposed and the duration of exposure Age, genetic constitution of host, and general physical, mental, and emotional health and nutritional status of the host Status of hematopoietic systems; efficacy of reticuloendothelial system Absent or abnormal immunoglobulins The number of T lymphocytes and their ability to function Pregnant healthcare professionals are not known to be at greater risk of contracting bloodborne infections; however, during pregnancy, the infant is at risk of perinatal transmission.
The organism must have a portal of entry into the host for infection to occur. Portals of entry are the mucous membranes, non-intact skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tracts, or a mechanism of introduction percutaneous injury or invasive devices. Return to Top All of the microorganisms that can cause disease are capable of developing resistance to antibiotics and other drugs that are used to treat infections caused by these pathogens.
Antibiotic-resistant organisms have become an increasingly serious problem, and some of the more common ones are discussed. Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae Enterobacteriaceae are gram-negative bacilli that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract.
Common species of this family that cause infections include Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella. Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae CRE are resistant to treatment with the carbapenem family of antibiotics Doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenemthe antibiotics that have traditionally been used to treat pathogens that are resistant to broad-spectrum antimicrobials.
The CRE is spread through contact with infected surfaces e. CRE infections usually do not occur in healthy people; they are more likely to occur in hospitalized patients who have a compromised immune system, patients who are mechanically ventilated, or those who have received multiple antibiotics.
The incidence of CRE infections is increasing. Control and prevention of CRE infections should focus on: Transmission is very efficient, and S aureus colonizes the skin and nares easily.
Once colonized, the person faces the likelihood of infection when invasive procedures are performed. In addition, MRSA often contaminates medical equipment such as stethoscopes and environmental surfaces like computer keyboards.
Methicillin- and oxacillin-resistant S aureus can produce toxins and invade body tissues.
The only effective antibiotic for treating these infections is vancomycin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC recommends strict adherence to Standard Precautions, correct and appropriate use of personal protective equipment PPE, appropriate handling of medical devices and laundry, and Contact Precautions should be used if the facility has decided that MRSA is of special clinical or epidemiological significance.
The result of the test is called minimum inhibitory concentration MICwhich is the measure of the minimum amount of antimicrobial agent that inhibits bacterial growth in a test tube.
Patients who are infected with VISA or VRSA should be in a single room; Contact Precautions and Standard Precautions are required; staff education is recommended; minimize the number of staff caring for the patient; and flag the chart to alert staff of the situation.
It is a relatively weak pathogen, but it is capable of producing significant infections if the patient is infected with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus VREtreatment options for these infections are limited.
People at risk for VRE infections include patients previously treated with vancomycin, patients in intensive care, patients who are immunocompromised, patients who have had abdominal or chest surgery, and patients with in-dwelling IV or urinary catheters. Contact precautions and Standard precautions should be used to prevent transmission of VRE.
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, the fluoroquinolones, and at least one of the three second-line injectable drugs used to treat TB.Children with Down Syndrome (3 contact hours for $12) Identify specific neurological, sensory, orthopedic, cardiac, respiratory, autoimmune, mental health, dental, and oncological health risks of children with Down syndrome, and describe appropriate nursing interventions related to these risks.
Outline procedures for infection control in own work setting Within the nursery setting we follow rules and advice aimed at preventing the spread of disease and infection.
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Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention The material in this report originated in the National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Kevin Fenton, MD, PhD, Director; and the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, Kenneth G.
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