Advertisements Early conceptions The first fictional depiction of a satellite being launched into orbit is a short story by Edward Everett HaleThe Brick Moon. The story is serialized in The Atlantic Monthlystarting in which is the first academic treatise on the use of rocketry to launch spacecraft.
List of orbits Various earth orbits to scale; cyan represents low earth orbit, yellow represents medium earth orbit, the black dashed line represents geosynchronous orbit, the green dash-dot line the orbit of Global Positioning System GPS satellites, and the red dotted line the orbit of the International Space Station ISS.
The first satellite, Sputnik 1was put into orbit around Earth and was therefore in geocentric orbit. By far this is the most common type of orbit with approximately 1,  artificial satellites orbiting the Earth.
Geocentric orbits may be further classified by their altitude, inclination and eccentricity. Low Earth orbit is any orbit below 2, km. Centric classifications[ edit ] Geocentric orbit: An orbit around the planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. Currently there are approximately 1,  artificial satellites orbiting the Earth.
An orbit around the Sun. In our Solar Systemall planets, cometsand asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris. Moons by contrast are not in a heliocentric orbit but rather orbit their parent planet. An orbit around the planet Marssuch as by moons or artificial satellites.
The general structure of a satellite is that it is connected to the earth stations that are present on the ground and connected through terrestrial links. Also known as an intermediate circular orbit.
The period of the orbit equals one sidereal daycoinciding with the rotation period of the Earth. High Earth orbit HEO: Orbital Altitudes of several significant satellites of earth.
Inclination classifications[ edit ] Inclined orbit: An orbit whose inclination in reference to the equatorial plane is not zero degrees.
An orbit that passes above or nearly above both poles of the planet on each revolution.
Therefore, it has an inclination of or very close to 90 degrees. Polar sun synchronous orbit: A nearly polar orbit that passes the equator at the same local time on every pass. Useful for image taking satellites because shadows will be nearly the same on every pass.
Eccentricity classifications[ edit ] Circular orbit: An orbit that has an eccentricity of 0 and whose path traces a circle.
An orbit that moves a spacecraft from one approximately circular orbit, usually the orbit of a planet, to another, using two engine impulses. This maneuver was named after Walter Hohmann.
An orbit with an eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 whose orbit traces the path of an ellipse. An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit LEO and the apogee at the altitude of a geosynchronous orbit. An elliptic orbit where the perigee is at the altitude of a Low Earth orbit LEO and the apogee at the altitude of a geostationary orbit.
A highly elliptic orbit with inclination of Such a satellite spends most of its time over two designated areas of the planet specifically Russia and the United States.
Such a satellite spends most of its time over a single designated area of the planet. Synchronous classifications[ edit ] Synchronous orbit: To a ground observer such a satellite would trace an analemma figure 8 in the sky.
Such a satellite would trace an analemma figure 8 in the sky. A geosynchronous orbit with an inclination of zero. To an observer on the ground this satellite would appear as a fixed point in the sky.
Another name for a geostationary orbit.When it is necessary to avoid both the ambiguity of confusion with Earth's natural satellite the Moon and the natural satellites of the other planets on the one hand, and artificial satellites on the other, the term natural satellite (using "natural" in a sense opposed to "artificial") is used.
To further avoid ambiguity, the convention is to. A natural satellite in astronomy is a smaller body which moves around a larger body. The smaller body is held in orbit by gravitation.
The term is used for moons which go around planets,   and it is also used for small galaxies which orbit larger galaxies. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO, / ˈ ɪ s r oʊ /) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration."Headquarters: Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite to be successfully launched into space, by the USSR (Soviet Union) on 4 October Satellites are launched into space by rockets, and orbit up to and beyond 35, kilometres (22, miles) in altitude.
Artificial satellites come from more than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations.
A few hundred satellites are currently working, but thousands of unused satellites and satellite fragments orbit the Earth as space debris. Artificial Satellites is a journal of planetary geodesy, affiliated to the Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences.
It offers a forum for scientific publications on such aspects of geodesy and geodynamics as positioning, satellite geodesy, gravity field, geoid and .